THYROID & PARATHYROID
The past two decades, has seen a rapid increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide. Though these cancers have a major predilection for the female sex, exact cause behind this sex disparity is not known. Most of the patients present with a thyroid nodule in the neck which in 5 – 20% of the cases would be malignant. The nodules are likely to be malignant when seen in children and male gender.
Presentation in the form of cervical nodal metastases is seen in 20% of the cases. Difficulty swallowing, pain throat, persistent cough, and voice change may be some of the symptoms with which these patients could present.
Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only proven thyroid carcinogen.
Thyroid Cancers are best treated surgically followed by treatment with Radioiodine therapy.
Most thyroid cancers have excellent prognosis except for the Anaplastic variant which is extremely aggressive and invariably fatal.